To ensure the global use of ePassports there are a lot of issues that have to be considered. Amongst others there is the communication between the ePassport chip and the document reader, the security mechanisms that have to be supported and the coding of the data stored inside the chip. For those issues standardised conformity tests have been established.
However, to be applicable for a biometric verification, e.g. within a border control process, the ePassport has to fulfil an additional requirement: The biometric features stored on the chip need to have a certain quality.
To guarantee a quality level for the biometric features (face as well as fingers) an enrolment policy is needed for the passport application process and quality assurance mechanisms have to be implemented.
Using the German guidelines as an example the quality requirements on the biometric features are described. Additionally conformity test procedures for the acquisition hardware and the biometric software are explained.
Within (semi-)automated border control systems the biometric verification of the document holder is just one issue. In addition to this the optical and electronic security features of the ePassport have to checked as well as background checks, e.g. for stolen documents.
By designing automated border control systems and processes different aspects have to be considered:
These aspects are discussed based on e.g. the German eGate project that is currently in preparation.